It is possible to replace the theme name with your company name within the source code - but why?
Branding your company and creating engaging content will be far more beneficial than swapping out a theme name for your company.
1) Just leave out your company name.
2) Or you can go through the process of working with the internationalization system, where all readable strings in your theme live in a single file, which can be changed by a person.
First approach is instant + easy.
Second approach is many hours of work to design, implement, then maintain across all WordPress future changes.
Yes, it is possible to White Label a WordPress theme both in the source code, as well as on the front-end of the site, as you would use your own company logo. Through some research, you can find companies that exist for this sole purpose. Feel free to reach out if you have any questions on how to do this or need referrals to companies.